The success from catalysts depends on its structure and
composition. Tremendous research has been devoted in
fine-tuning the melding of structure and raw material makeup to
provide efficient catalyst systems for the hydrocarbon
processing system. Some very effective catalysts include rare
earth (RE) elements to facilitate desired processing reactions.
RE elements are very difficult to mine. As indicated by
rare in its names, RE elements are under stress as
more products and applications utilize these materials. In
addition to catalysts, RE elements are used in camera lenses,
jet engines, nuclear batteries, lasers, vanadium steel,
high-temperature superconductors and other hi-tech products.
Newer applications include wind turbines and hybrid and
electric car batteries. Demand for greener
products, energy and vehicles continues to raise demand for RE