Optimize low TOC range monitoring
How can a monitoring system, with a very short response time
and a reliable and fast validation/calibration method, enable
reuse of pure and hot water by monitoring steam processes and
boiler feed water for contaminations by organics, reduce
operation cost and energy loss? ODS Sampling & Analytical
Systems in the Netherlands is experienced in installing online
total organic carbon (TOC) process-monitoring systems and
advises operators how to optimize their processes to obtain
fast and accurate TOC measurements. In low TOC ranges,
measuring and validating/calibrating can be problematic. Today,
boilers operate at very high
pressure (100 bar120 bar and higher). According to
numerous guidelines, only water contamination at concentrations
lower than 0.1 mg/l C to 0.2 mg/l C are allowed. Boilers operating at lower pressure
(60 bar80 bar) allow water contamination at a slightly
higher level of about 0.5 mg/l C. The TOC analyzer must be
capable of monitoring this potential low-level TOC
To reduce operating costs and prevent any installation
damages caused by too high TOC concentrations, the total
monitoring TOC analyzer systems response time should be
as short as possible. There is a risk that contaminated return
condensate is pumped back into the boiler drum before being detected.
For monitoring possible TOC contaminations in steam processes
and boiler feed-water applications, fast
response times, as well as simple and fast validation of the
results, are required. Thus, the total analyzing
systemfrom the point of sample taking up to the
analyzerhas to be optimized.
Reducing response time.
By optimizing the dimension, size and type of materials of
all wetted parts, such effects mentioned above, can be
minimized. Sufficient sample velocity in sample lines of at
least 0.3 m/s, preferably 1 m/s, is important. Small
sample-line diameters decrease the total wetted surface. In
general, ODS recommends an OD of 6-mm or ¼-in. lines
with an ID of about 4 mm. However, this small-diameter sample
line can handle very high pressure without any risk. Seamless
sample pipes in stainless-steel quality 316 should be used.
Every meter of sample line is one meter too much.
TOC analyzers use the thermal oxidation method at
1,200°C combined with multiloop injection by LAR Process
Analysers AG. These analyzers have low ranges with accurate and
stable TOC or total carbon (TC) analyses. The lowest detectable
limit is about 2 µg/l C.
No pump is used in the sample stream. Peristaltic pumps use
flexible tubes that cause absorption effects.
TOC or TC?
A boiler needs pure water. This water is produced via the
makeup-water installation. All impurities are removed as far as
possible. Acid attacks the metal boiler wall, process pipes and heat
exchangers, resulting in pit corrosion. A TOC analyzer
analyzes only organic carbons. A TC analyzer responds to
organic hydrocarbons, as well as inorganic carbon
Optimal sample conditioning.
Samples are extracted from a sample point in a big process
pipe. A sample point at the lowest point, especially in
horizontal pipes, will act as a buffer collecting fine
particles like metal oxides, etc. Small particles need to be
There are several methods to reduce the sample temperature.
Although the analyzers can handle a temperature of about
90°C, it is safer to reduce the temperature to a lower
value such as between 30°C and 40°C. ODS uses an
air-cooled heat exchanger with a very-low internal volume. In
fact, it transports the sample continuously, at a flow of about
1 liter/min., as close as possible to the analyzer.
Fast validation and calibration.
LAR has improved and simplified calibration and validation
for TOC analyzers based on the high-temperature method at
1,200°C. With any other methods it is necessary to provide
watery standards for calibration and validationrequiring
high expenditure and long fall-out times. Its patented method
uses a specified test gas. With the QuickTOCcondensate, the
sample volume is defined by an injection loop and injected into
the reactor via the carrier gas. The high temperature of
1,200°C enables use of a defined concentration of
CO2 or methane. Such a certified validation gas is
stable and usable for a long period of time. LARs
QuickTOC analyzers are especially customized to meet pure-water
Fig. 1. Sample
Select 1 at www.HydrocarbonProcessing.com/RS
Catalytic direct oxidation for sulfur recovery
GTC Technology has a worldwide
technology licensing agreement with TDA Research for sulfur
recovery from hydrogen sulfide (H2S) through
catalytic direct oxidation. The agreement expands GTCs
platform of acid-gas removal technology, including
GT-CO2, a process technology for CO2
removal; GT-SSR, a Claus process for sulfur recovery with over
60 licenses; and Crystasulf, a liquid-phase Claus process
technology for sulfur recovery. GTC expects the catalytic
direct oxygen technology to apply to a range of 0.2 tpd to 300
Direct oxidation catalyst technology provides a
significant advance in sulfur recovery, said Dr. Matt
Thundyil, sulfur business leader for GTC Technology US, LLC.
We will be able to deliver greater value to our clients,
and continue our exceptional track record in commercializing
innovative technologies for the energy industry.
Select 2 at www.HydrocarbonProcessing.com/RS
hte engaged in research for Total
The high-throughput experimentation (hte) company is
collaborating with Total Gas and Power in a research project for optimizing a large-scale
gas-to-chemical (GTC) process. The collaborations main
goal was to compare the performance of newly developed catalyst
formulations with a GTC catalyst already being used by Total on
a large scale. The optimum process parameters for deployment on
an industrial scale were successfully determined within the
scope of the cooperation.
High throughput technologies and htes expertise, both
in heterogeneous catalysis and process optimization, reportedly
made a considerable contribution to securing the research projects success. Based on a
statistical Design of Experiments (DoE), hte performed numerous
experimental investigations within a short period of time. The
comprehensive and precise data provided from this was then used
to create a macrokinetic reaction model for a GTC catalyst used
by Total on an industrial scale.
With its development and optimization of GTC processes,
Total is striving to establish natural
gas, biomass and coal as economically viable alternatives
to crude oil and thereby tap new petrochemical added value chains.
Total and hte are building on their successful cooperation in a
Select 3 at www.HydrocarbonProcessing.com/RS
Material virtually eliminates sealless pump
CeraComp material, an innovative ceramic-matrix composite,
reportedly delivers dramatic benefits over traditional
silicon-carbide materials with superior fracture and wear
resistance. It expands sealless pump reliability by virtually eliminating
the risk of catastrophic failure. Green, Tweeds CeraComp
solutions are said to deliver exceptional toughness and
fracture resistance for improved MTBF and reduced maintenance costs. The material is
capable of withstanding temperatures over 1,100°F
(600°C). This exceeds the upper limit of polymeric and
elastomeric composites, and maintains outstanding chemical
resistance. In addition, CeraComps excellent toughness
enables better structural integrity and impact resistance,
eliminating the risk of catastrophic failure.
The materials design flexibility makes it suitable for
a wide range of petrochemical and power
applications. Green, Tweeds Advanced Technology and Engineering teams
have developed two solutions for canned-motor and
magnetic-driven pumps. These bearings and bushings are suitable
for both rotary and static usage.
Fig. 2. CeraComp
Select 4 at www.HydrocarbonProcessing.com/RS
Precise and reliable oil-analysis
A new method for elemental analysis of oil samples in the petrochemical industry uses the
Thermo Scientific ARL PERFORMX X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
spectrometer to create a flexible and high-performance solution
that is reportedly capable of reaching detection limits of
below 0.5 ppm. Using wavelength dispersive XRF (WDXRF), the
method is said to offer excellent repeatability and resolution,
particularly for light elements such as sodium and calcium. In
addition, it allows oils to be measured directly without
dilution, reducing sample preparation time, and increasing
speed and throughput of analyses.
The ARL PERFORMX system provides dual sample loading
and is able to process more than 60 samples per hour, offering
rapid and precise analysis of up to 84 elements including
sulfur, nickel, vanadium and lead. The instruments
innovative sample-recognition capability ensures safe and
straightforward loading of liquids. Featuring the latest
version of the state-of-the-art Thermo Scientific OXSAS
software, the instrument can operate with Microsoft Windows 7
to ensure simple and trouble-free analyses.
Fig. 3. ARL
Select 5 at www.HydrocarbonProcessing.com/RS
Scanning unit offers inside view of
The microscopy department at Freudenberg Forschungsdienste
(Freudenberg Research Services) has started using a computed
tomography (CT) scanning unit. Developed on the basis of X-ray
technology, CT provides X-ray images
from various angles, creating computer-assisted 3D images.
These 3D images provide a perfect, faithful insight into the
inside of the object being examined.
The specified object can be turned and rotated onscreen as
required and viewed from all conceivable angles. With the help
of CT images, Freudenberg checks whether material samples,
prototypes and initial sample components meet stipulated
specifications. These images can also be used to identify
component damage and analyze its causes. Experts can examine
the entire component as a transparent image or can make its
plastic covering disappear at the click of a mouse, revealing
the integral electric printed circuit board and contacts.
Distances, angles, radii, surface areas, or the volume of even
the tiniest trapping of air can be exactly calculated.
Freudenberg also uses CT scanning to check the even
distribution of fibers in non-wovens and to find out whether
air has been trapped in cast parts. With CT scanning,
Freudenberg is making giant leaps forward in terms of the
industrial development of elastomer components and fracture
Select 6 at www.HydrocarbonProcessing.com/RS