In late March, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released the long-awaited ruling for ultra-low-sulfur gasoline, also known as the Tier 3 rule. This proposed rule lowers the sulfur content of gasoline by 60% from the present level of 30 ppm to 10 ppm by 2017. The goal of this tighter fuel specification is to prevent 2,400 premature deaths per year and 23,000 cases of respiratory ailments in children, all totaling $8 billion and $23 billion in health-related benefits. It supports efforts by states to reduce harmful levels of smog and soot sourced from vehicle emissions. The new gasoline sulfur rule has support from state governors, public health groups, environmentalists and the auto industry.