By ADRIENNE BLUME
TEL AVIV, Israel -- Gulf Publishing Company's second annual
Eastern Mediterranean Gas Conference (EMGC) continued on
Wednesday with a session dedicated to infrastructure
requirements, developments and reliability
Jon Lewis, the global director of
gas processing for WorleyParsons, spoke about the diversity
of gas processing plants within the industry (photo
Mr. Lewis gave brief reviews of various gas composition
characteristics, thermodynamic technologies for gas
processing, and the basic operational flow for a typical gas
processing plant's main functionsacid gas removal,
dehydration and natural gas liquids (NGL) removal.
He then discussed a number of variables that impact and
require adaptations of these processing functions, and gave
examples of specific plants with varying configurations, such
as the San Juan gas plant and the Whitney Canyon gas plant,
both of which use molecular sieves.
Meanwhile, the Hannibal gas plant features a combination BTX
and glycol removal process that is an integral feature of its
design. The CATS gas plant has minimum liquids recovery and
no CO2 removal, which Mr. Lewis noted is not an optimal
design option for today's gas plant operations.
The Point of Ayr gas plant has no air coolers because it is
located next to a vacation resort, and noise minimization is
a priority. Meanwhile, the high-reliability
Langeled gas plant
receives 2.5 Bcfd of fully treated gas at various pressures,
and its primary function is to separate out inadvertent
Mr. Lewis then spoke about a new Israeli gas plant that will
likely be built between Tel Aviv and Haifa. This plant must
accommodate specific CAPEX, OPEX, flexibility, operability,
and inherently safer design parameters. Many of these design
options are found in presently operating gas plants and can
be adapted for use in a greenfield Israeli gas plant.
for FLNG design.
Next, DNV GL Vice President Richard
Whitehead spoke about the risks and key issues involved in
subsea installation and floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG)
s (photo 2)
Primary risks include process safety and environment
al concerns, OPEX and
CAPEX risks, and technical considerations. For FLNG in
particular, several specific risks must be considered.
These risks include hydrocarbon
fire and explosion
(approximately 50% of risk) as well as non-process hazards.
The risk profile for every project
is different, although
risks are generally higher for an FLNG vessel than for an
offshore platform. The layout of the vessel is particularly
critical, Mr. Whitehead said, due to the complexity of the
processes required for FLNG project
More specifically, hydrocarbon
risks include explosion,
pool fire, jet fire, cryogenic spill, and rapid phase
transition. Explosion risks tend to dominate, so living
quarters and safety shelters must be carefully located, and
explosion-proof barriers should be considered for these
Stainless steels, special coatings and concrete can help
mitigate cryogenic spills, and the locations of solid floors
and drainages or breakaways must be carefully chosen to
contain or drain cryogenic spills.
DNV GL research on FLNG shows that it is advantageous to
understand the influences in the explosion loads as early as
possible, both to help the design and to ensure a high level
of process and worker safety.