Intensifying performance demands in refineries, coupled with the ongoing decline in crude oil quality, require a new and improved duplex SS grade to withstand increasingly tough operating conditions. This need has led to the development of hyper-duplex stainless steels.
Frequent failures of the waste spray nozzles in incinerators result in accelerated degradation of the refractory lining, requiring unscheduled shutdowns for repairs. A study was carried out to identify the factors that contributed to the nozzle failure and to prevent the reoccurrence of similar failures in the future.
Various options for reducing the TMT of a vacuum heater, such as changing the transfer line size and adding extra surface area in the radiation and convection sections, are examined here. The best option generally depends on the limitations under which the heater operates with regard to the process requirements and the downstream equipment limitations and flexibility.
Several improvements are on the horizon, which will add powerful optimization capabilities into the process modeler’s simulation work space in areas like heat integration, column optimization and economics.
With the fluctuation of natural gas pricing, it is important to evaluate technically feasible solutions and choose the most economical alternative. Ultimately, this leads to a simpler and more cost-effective solution.
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Engineers and designers are highly skilled individuals. Forcing them to enter design changes using tables, forms and spreadsheets is unproductive and uneconomical, and it increases the likelihood of human error—this is the way that most instrumentation software systems currently work. For too long, software vendors have denied engineers and designers the simple practicality of a graphical visual engineering interface with “drag and drop” capability and inbuilt intelligence, ensuring changes are automatically replicated into all the associated data and databases.
D. GIBSON, AVEVA
As low oil prices make naphtha cracking margins in Europe and Asia more competitive, are investments in new, ethane-based petrochemicals capacity in the US and Middle East becoming less attractive?
Yes, ethane cracking is less economical
No, ethane cracking is still the future
Too early to tell