World War II was one of the defining events that drove innovation for the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI). During the 1940s, solutions were needed to resolve shortages of transportation fuels and a lack of natural rubber. From WWII, new refining technologies were developed to process 100-octane fuels. A wave of new refining capacity, funded by the US government, was constructed. Likewise, synthetic rubber (SR) manufacturing received a political push to construct new petrochemical capacity to support SR demand.