Refining;2015 Hydrocarbon Processing60RefiningBolivia expands petrochemical capability with Bulo Bulo ammonia complexThe Bulo Bulo ammonia-urea facility will be Bolivia’s first petrochemical venture. This new facility is expected to produce sufficient urea/ammonia supplies for domestic demand and will provide surplus product for export., 01 Apr 2015 00:00:00 GMTHP Industry Metrics, 01 Apr 2015 00:00:00 GMTHP Innovations, 01 Apr 2015 00:00:00 GMTUpdate on the catalytic cracking process—Part 2, 01 Apr 2015 00:00:00 GMTUS petrochemical construction boom and refining margins cushion profitsDomestic refiners and petrochemical producers will face changing supply and demand conditions, particularly as the sharp decrease in oil prices influences drilling decisions., 01 Apr 2015 00:00:00 GMT2015 Catalyst developments: Innovation and value creation, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 GMTDetermine the design metal temperature for a secondary reformerAn air-burning system should be designed so that there is no maintenance required between scheduled shutdowns every two years. To achieve this, a metal temperature study should be carried out for the design of the pressure parts and for the refractory design., 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 GMTDownstream has good news for 2015, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 GMTExtend heat exchanger lifecycle with hyper-duplex stainless steelIntensifying performance demands in refineries, coupled with the ongoing decline in crude oil quality, require a new and improved duplex SS grade to withstand increasingly tough operating conditions. This need has led to the development of hyper-duplex stainless steels., 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 GMTHow caustic stress leads to failures of incinerator caustic spray nozzlesFrequent failures of the waste spray nozzles in incinerators result in accelerated degradation of the refractory lining, requiring unscheduled shutdowns for repairs. A study was carried out to identify the factors that contributed to the nozzle failure and to prevent the reoccurrence of similar failures in the future., 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 GMTHP Industry Metrics, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 GMTImprove the operation of fired heaters, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 GMTLatin America’s refinery product demand is decelerating, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 GMTNotables from BP's <i> Energy Outlook 2035</i>, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 GMTOptimize online monitoring of base oil, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 GMTShale oil characterization optimizes refining process, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 GMTUpdate on the catalytic cracking process and standpipes—Part 1, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 GMT