Lines, J.

Graham Corp., Batavia, New York

Jim Lines is an engineer at Graham Corp. in Batavia, New York. He has 33 years of experience in heat transfer and vacuum system design. He holds a BS degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Buffalo in New York. He has authored or coauthored numerous articles in the fields of heat exchanger and ejector system design.

Key design considerations for vacuum process condensers

Lines, J., Graham Corp.

The crude oil refining and petrochemical industries make extensive use of condensers that operate under vacuum (i.e., below atmospheric pressure). Distillation is the most common process using these condensers, either as a process precondenser ahead of an ejector system, or as an intercondenser within an ejector system.