July 2004

Special Report: LNG and GTL Developments

Optimize energy integration for LNG terminals

Integrating heating requirements with adjacent facilities can provide economic bonus while improving operating efficiencies

Price, B. C., Black & Veatch

As the LNG market expands in the US, receiving terminal design must be more energy efficient and environmentally friendly. Vaporizing LNG for injection to the distribution pipeline involves burning fuel for heating (which impacts air emissions) or using seawater for heat transfer (which impacts the water ecosystem). Both methods have significant capital costs, in addition to the environmental impacts. By integrating LNG operations with other facilities such as power generation and petrochemical/ chemical facilities, the terminal capital cost can be reduced, and environmental impact significantly reduced and possibly in some cases eliminated. Also, integration can lower capital and oper

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