July 2005

Special Report: LNG and GTL Developments

LNG receiving and regasification terminal operations

Understanding and controlling boil-off gas pressure enhances energy efficiency

Lemmers, S. P. B., Vopak LNG Holding BV

A liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving and regasification terminal connects an intermittent process, an LNG carrier unloading, with a continuous process, LNG vaporization and gas transmission into a sendout pipeline system. The terminal receives LNG from a carrier and stores it in cryogenic liquid state. The storage temperature is approximately – 160°C and the pressure is slightly above atmospheric. LNG from the storage tanks is pressurized by low pressure (LP) in-tank LNG pumps and combined with recondensed boil-off gas (BOG). It is further pressurized by high pressure (HP) LNG sendout pumps to pipeline pressure to be vaporized. The final product is natural gas (NG) to end users.

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