Special Focus: Plant Safety and Environment

Building blocks of process safety
Dutta, H., Nayara Energy Ltd.

Major incidents continue to strike the oil and gas industry at regular intervals.

Built-up backpressure at the outlet flange of a pressure relief valve
Cordero, G. O., Techint Engineering & Construction

Even for pressure relief valves (PRVs) discharging directly to the atmosphere through short tailpipes, API 520 Part 11 warns that choked flow may develop at the outlet flange, resulting in high backpressure.

Integrating fire and gas safety with process control systems: Why, what and how
Crosley, B., Indgjer, M., Det-Tronics

If a fire, smoke or gas leak is detected in a hydrocarbon processing facility, prescriptive actions must be taken by the fire and gas (F&G) safety system, as well as by the process control system (PCS), to mitigate and control the hazard.

High-reliability organizing for a new paradigm in safety
Hanik, P., Pretium Innovation LLC; Hausmann, R., University of Houston

Should the chemical industry be satisfied with its existing safety programs, or is change needed to create a new paradigm?

Maintenance and Reliability

Fouling mitigation strategies for process gas compressors in olefins plants
Eteng, O. C., Indorama Eleme Petrochemicals Ltd.

Indorama Eleme Petrochemicals’ olefins plant in Port Harcourt, Nigeria is designed to produce 300,000 tpy of polymer-grade ethylene and 126,000 tpy of polymer-grade propylene through the pyrolysis or thermal cracking of natural gas liquids (NGL).

Importance of welding procedure software
Anwer, A., Contributing Editor

Welding is an ocean of substance, a technique without which the joining of metals is impossible.

Amine pumps upgraded for improved operations and reliability
Yusoff, D., PETRONAS; Aronen, R., Bouden International

A gas processing plant in Malaysia eliminated a source of expensive failures in its acid gas removal unit (AGRU).

Heat Transfer

Understand the installation of steam tracing for long-term application success—Part 2
Hannah, C. C., Perry, T. W., QMax Industries Inc.

One of the most misunderstood and misused components of conductive steam tracing systems is heat transfer compound (HTC).

Methodology for model-based, real-time prediction of corrosion in heat exchangers
Holzer, G., Jeitler, E., Prozess Optimal CAP GmbH

In the chemical and process industries, gases or vapor mixtures must be cooled to temperatures near the water dewpoint in a variety of thermal unit operations.

Process Optimization

Reconstruct a vacuum column injector system using computer modeling—Part 1
Telyakov, E. S., Osipov, E. V., Bugembe, D., Kazan National Research Technological University

Steam ejector vacuum systems are the most common means of creating and maintaining a vacuum in the process units of oil and gas processing facilities.

Catalyst

More residue processing in FCCUs
Genç, M., Karani, U., Er, I., TÜPRAŞ; Kandaz, S., Albemarle Corp.

Resid units have more than 2 wt% Conradson carbon residue (Concarbon) in feed and more than 5,000 parts per million (ppm) of nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) on equilibrium catalysts (Ecat).

Process Control and Instrumentation

The road to successful plant modernization
Kang, H., Yokogawa Corp. of America

Any personnel working in a refinery or heavy petrochemical plant with “vintage” automation equipment are painfully aware of the effects a distributed control system (DCS) from the 1990s, 1980s or even earlier can have on operations.

Columns

Editorial Comment: HP Top Projects awards are back!
Nichols, Lee, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

It’s that time again! Hydrocarbon Processing has announced the nominees for its annual Top Project awards.

Reliability: Defining process hazard analysis and loss control advisory tasks
Bloch, Heinz P., Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

The safety and reliability of fluid machinery has been the subject of hundreds of columns, books and articles over the past decades.

Engineering Case Histories: Case 103—Addressing heat exchanger tube leaks
Sofronas, A., Consulting Engineer

Heat exchangers have multiple tubes with fluid passing through and over them that either heats or cools another fluid.

Viewpoint: New thinking to old problems
Mestari, Y., Honeywell

The oil and gas industry is aging, and it is time to get wiser when it comes to training and productivity.

Africa: New maritime emissions rules to impact Africa’s downstream sector
Oirere, S., Contributing Editor

As the 2020 deadline set by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for the implementation of low-carbon shipping regulations inches closer, African refineries are still grappling with the question of how to finance the upgrading of oil processing plants to enable them to produce the required low-sulfur marine fuels and reduce reliance on noncompliant import fuels for powering the region’s shipping industry.

Maintenance: Improving plant performance by changing a maintenance culture
Reed, D., Eastman Chemical Company; Thompson, M., Evolve Partners

Over the last 2 yr, the plant maintenance department (PMD) at Eastman Chemical Co.’s Longview, Texas site produced these significant improvements to plant performance.

Risk: Measuring margins—Avoiding complacency when the market is stable
Lamb, J., Allegro Development Corp.

When top oil marketer Geneva Energy Markets LLC liquidated its trading book holding1 “millions of barrels of open interest across crude oil, refined products and natural gas,” managing partner Mark Vonderheide emphasized the pressures and potential damage of new market regulations.

Viewpoint: Reducing the sulfur shadow— Who pays the price?
Wright, S., KBC

The International Maritime Organization’s (IMO’s) 2020 regulation has been described as the most disruptive change to impact the oil industry in the past 30 yr.

Industry Perspectives: New downstream project announcements surge 43% over the past year
Nichols, Lee, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

According to the Hydrocarbon Processing Construction Boxscore Database, more than 320 new downstream capital projects have been announced over the past year.

Business Trends
Free, A., Renegar, CJ, Argo Consulting

Across the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI), executives are buzzing about operational excellence.

Onsite
Nichols, Lee, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Jenny Hebert and George Yaluris of Albemarle accept the HP Award for Best Catalyst Technology.

Industry Metrics
Rhodes, Mike, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

The US product market strengthened, mainly supported by higher product exports, particularly to Latin America.

Global Project Data
Nichols, Lee, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

According to Hydrocarbon Processing’s Construction Boxscore Database, more than 320 new projects have been announced in the downstream processing industry over the past year.