June 2021

Special Focus: Process Optimization

Vapor velocity guidelines for horizontal flare knockout drums

Flare knockout (KO) drums are important components of effluent handling systems.

Flare knockout (KO) drums are important components of effluent handling systems. A horizontal drum is often considered more economical than a vertical one if the vapor flow is high and a large liquid holdup is required. The function of the flare KO drum is to remove liquid droplets in the range of 300 µm–600 µm from the vapor feed stream to the flare burner. Flare stacks should not discharge larger liquid droplets, as these can cause smoke or burning rain. Burning rain creates a significant safety hazard to people and can cause damage to structures and equipment. The most effective way to prevent burning rain is to install a properly designed KO drum. American Petroleum Institute (API) Stan

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