June 2022

100th Anniversary

History of the HPI: The 1970s: Crises, clean air, plastic bottles and the DCS

The 1970s were marked by several historical events that affected not only the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) but nations around the world.

Nichols, Lee, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

The 1970s were marked by several historical events that affected not only the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) but nations around the world. The decade witnessed two oil crises that would disrupt the global supply of oil and increase prices substantially. New regulations by the U.S. and Europe ushered in an era of clean fuels standards that are still in transition today. Novel technologies introduced in the 1970s revolutionized emissions reduction from vehicles’ tailpipes, advanced process controls and automation, and changed the way society drinks carbonated beverages.

The decade also witnessed advances in catalytic processing technologies, such as the commercialization of catalytic dewaxing, wax hydroisomerization and continuous catalytic reforming (CCR).135 For example, Mobil developed the first catalytic dewaxing process in the mid-1970s. The technology—referred to as the MDDW process—utilized the company’s Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) catalyst to increase the cold flow properties of diesel (the invention of the ZSM-5 catalyst was detailed in the History of the HPI section in the May issue).136 In 1971, UOP began operations on the first CCR Platforming unit at the Coastal States refinery in Corpus Christi, Texas (U.S.). According to literature, the CCR section enabled refiners to continuously remove coke accumulating on the catalyst. This allowed lower reforming reaction pressures to increase reformate and hydrogen yields, higher reaction temperatures to achieve higher octane levels for gasoline blending—thus enabling lead-free gasoline—and increased production of aromatics for use as petrochemical feedstocks.137

Two crises stress the importance for energy security

The 1970s were rocked by two global crises: The oil embargo of 1973 and the oil crisis of 1979. These two events had detrimental effects on oil importing nations around the world, as well as stressed the importance of energy security.

Oil embargo of 1973. The first oil crisis to affect the global economy in the 1970s was the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries’ (OPEC’s) oil embargo in 1973–1974—the creation of OPEC was detailed in the History of the HPI section in the May issue of Hydrocarbon Processing. The embargo was a retaliation against countries that supported Israel during the Yom Kippur War with Syria (i.e., the U.S., Canada, Japan, and a few African and Western European nations).138 It banned petroleum exports to targeted countries and incorporated crude oil production cuts, leading to a quadrupling of oil prices—oil prices increased from $3/bbl to nearly $12/bbl by early 1974, an increase of 300%.139

The embargo had detrimental effects on nations that were dependent on foreign oil to satisfy domestic demand. Many nations enacted oil rationing programs, as well as banning fuels usage (e.g., driving, flying) on various days. The high price of oil even led several countries to the brink of recession and proved that oil could be used as an economic weapon.139

In March 1974, peace talks between Israel and Syria led to the eventual lifting of the oil embargo. However, this would not be the last time within this decade that the world would be caught in a global oil price crisis.

Oil crisis of 1979. The second crisis that significantly affected global oil prices in the 1970s was due to the Iranian Revolution. The revolution, which began in early 1978 and ended a year later, led to the toppling of the country’s leader, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, and installed Sheikh Khomeini as grand ayatollah. The year-long revolution was responsible for knocking approximately 4.8 MMbpd of oil production offline. Although this represented only 7% of the world’s oil production at the time, it led to global oil prices nearly doubling to $39/bbl.140

In a little more than 6 yr removed from the oil embargo crisis, history began to repeat itself. Several countries rationed supplies, governments invested billions of dollars in research to find an alternative to oil, and many countries either switched or began to explore switching domestic power generation from oil to other feedstocks, such as coal, natural gas or nuclear.140

Both the 1973 oil embargo and 1979 oil crisis had dramatic effects on the global marketplace. However, the underlying theme of these global events brought to light the necessity for energy security, a concept that continues today.

The Clean Air Act of 1970 ushers in a new era of environmental awareness/action

As countries modernized and produced fuels and products for domestic and international markets, a lingering challenge could be felt by local populations: air pollution. Not only did manufacturing plants, refineries, chemical and petrochemicals facilities, factories and other industrial operations produce air pollutants, gasoline burned in internal combustion engines (i.e., automobiles) filled the skies with pollutants such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.

In efforts to reduce air pollution, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a series of laws and amendments to various industries. The first federal legislation passed to address air pollution in the U.S. was the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955. Although the law did not tackle air pollution directly, it provided funding for research relating to air pollution control.141 Eight years later, the U.S. EPA passed the Clean Air Act of 1963, which enabled the U.S. government to take direct action to control air pollution.141 In 1965, an amendment to the Clean Air Act of 1963—the Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act—created the first federal set of standards for vehicle emissions.142

The Clean Air Amendments of 1970 significantly strengthened federal authority to regulate emissions from both industrial and mobile sources (FIG. 1). This amendment included the following major components141:

  • It established the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for pollutants in outdoor air that can be harmful to the public or the environment—i.e., carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide.143
  • It established New Source Performance Standards to determine how much air pollution should be allowed by different industries.
  • It established the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants to cover all air pollutants not covered by the NAAQS.
  • It called for aggressive air pollution reduction goals—some as high as 90%—for the mobility sector.
FIG. 1. U.S. President Richard Nixon signs the Clean Air Act of 1970, which called for a significant reduction in air pollutants from industrial and mobility sectors. Photo courtesy  of the U.S. National Archives.
FIG. 1. U.S. President Richard Nixon signs the Clean Air Act of 1970, which called for a significant reduction in air pollutants from industrial and mobility sectors. Photo courtesy of the U.S. National Archives.

The significance of the Clean Air Act of 1970 was that it gave the U.S. EPA enforcement authority over domestic emissions levels, as well as required U.S. states to issue plans (State Implementation Plans) on adhering to national air pollution standards. This model is still in use today. The Clean Air Act had several additional amendments added to it over the next 30 yr, including major additions during the 1990s to address acid rain, ozone depletion and toxic air pollution, as well as establishing Reid vapor pressure standards and new regulations on fuels sold during the months of May–September (i.e., summer-grade fuel).141

Although the Clean Air Act was intended to reduce air pollution, especially from the automobile industry, challenges existed on how to mitigate pollutants from an automobile’s tailpipe. A solution was put forth in the mid-1950s but did not fully materialize for the auto industry until the mid-1970s. This technology can still be found on nearly every vehicle in use today: the catalytic converter.

The catalytic converter. Although prototypes of catalytic converters were introduced in France in the late 1800s, the modern catalytic converter was first patented in the mid-1950s by a well-known pioneer in the refining industry, Eugene Houdry. Houdry’s pioneering work in the creation of catalytic cracking was detailed in the History of the HPI segment in the February issue of Hydrocarbon Processing.

Houdry began research and development on this technology after studies were released that showed alarming increases in smog in the Los Angeles, California (U.S.) area. These Los Angeles area smog studies in the early 1950s also played a part in similar studies in Western Europe. Around 1956, both French and German scientists were engaged in research to mitigate smog in several major cities in France and Germany.144 These scientists noticed that several of their respective urban areas suffered from dense air pollution similar to that referenced in the Los Angeles smog reports. Both teams’ research into mitigating vehicle emissions eventually led to the implementation of Directive 70/220/EEC in 1970.145 This ground-breaking piece of legislation was the impetus to setting emissions standards for light- and heavy-duty vehicles in Europe. The directive eventually led to the introduction of the Euro 1 standard in 1992 (implemented for passenger cars in 1993), the removal of leaded petrol from filling stations in Europe and the adoption of three-way catalytic converters.144, 146,147 European emissions standards (i.e., Euro 1–6 and Euro I–IV; Euro 7/VII are expected to be implemented in the mid-2020s)145,148 would become a global standard for many countries around the world over the next few decades in efforts to adhere to clean fuels regulations.

FIG. 2. Eugene Houdry holding a small catalytic converter. Photo courtesy of Sunoco and the Science History Institute.
FIG. 2. Eugene Houdry holding a small catalytic converter. Photo courtesy of Sunoco and the Science History Institute.

In the U.S., Houdry was concerned that emissions from smokestacks and automobile exhaust were leading to significant air pollution.149 To reduce emissions from these sources, Houdry created the company Oxy-Catalyst to develop catalytic converters. His first designs were aimed at mitigating emissions from smokestacks. This effort was followed by the development of catalytic converters for low-grade gasoline-powered forklifts used in warehouses.150 In the mid-1950s, Houdry fixed his sights on developing catalytic converters for automobile engines. His technology was patented under the title Catalytic Apparatus to Render Non-Poisonous Exhaust Gases from Internal Combustion Engines on April 17, 1956 (FIG. 2).151

However, the widespread adoption of catalytic converters by the automobile industry did not take effect until the passing of the U.S. Clean Air Act and subsequent amendments. These laws dictated strict regulations on vehicle emissions, as well as the continued removal of lead from gasoline—incorporating tetraethyllead (TEL) into gasoline was first used in the 1920s to prevent knocking in internal combustion engines. The first TEL reduction standards—part of the U.S. NAAQS standards—were passed into law in the early 1970s. The recognized adverse impacts of emissions from leaded gasoline on human health would lead to the eventual removal of lead from gasoline over the next few decades—the U.S. banned leaded gasoline in on-road vehicles in 1996.152 Lead was also detrimental to the operation of catalytic converters. Lead acts as a catalyst poison by forming a coating on the catalysts inside the converter, leading to inactivity and increased emissions.149 Numerous countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and South America followed suit, and, in July 2021, the last batch of leaded gasoline was sold in Algeria. This occasion marked the end of the use of leaded gasoline globally.153

After the adoption of the Clean Air Act, automobile manufacturers began producing new lines of vehicles that included catalytic converters. However, the Clean Air Act amendments of the 1970s put stringent restrictions on the removal of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. Catalytic converters available at the time were able to reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions but not nitrogen oxide. This challenge was solved by a group of engineers working at Engelhard Corp. (now part of BASF) in Iselin, New Jersey (U.S.). This group was led by chemists Carl Keith and John Mooney. Their revolutionary three-way catalytic converter—introduced in 1973—was able to reduce all three pollutants from a vehicle’s tailpipe. According to literature, the technology used rare-earth and base metal oxide components in the catalyst together with platinum and rhodium in a ceramic honeycomb, with tiny passages coated with the catalytic material.154 This enabled their design to remove carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide in a single catalytic component.154 The three-way catalytic converter was installed in most vehicles in 1976 and is still in use today.

The evolution of the distributed control system

In 1959, Texaco started operations on the first digital control computer at a refinery. This system—a Thompsom Ramo Wooldridge RW-300 computer—became the first fully automatic, computer-controlled industrial process and ushered in the computer-integrated manufacturing era in the HPI. A detailed account of this technology was published in the History of the HPI section in the April issue of Hydrocarbon Processing.

Additional technologies, such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs), were incorporated into plant operations in the late 1960s/early 1970s. These devices were pioneered by Richard (Dick) Morley of Bedford Associates (now part of Schneider Electric) and Odo Josef Struger of Allen-Bradley (now part of Rockwell Automation). Both inventors are known as the fathers of PLCs—Struger even coined the acronym PLC.155 A history of the PLC is detailed in the History of the HPI section in the May issue of Hydrocarbon Processing. Allen-Bradley also introduced Data Highway in 1979, which was the first plant-floor network designed to support remote programming and messaging between computers and controllers, replacing miles of wiring in plant operations.156

In 1975, another revolutionary technology was unveiled to optimize refining and petrochemical plant operations, the distributed control system (DCS). The first DCSs were introduced by Honeywell and Yokogawa. Bristol (now part of Emerson Process Management) also introduced the UCS3000 in 1975, which was the first microprocessor-based universal controller.157 Prior to the DCS, plant operations were controlled via board operation (i.e., controllers were mounted on large instrument panels). However, through the evolution and wide-scale availability of microcomputers and microprocessors, the DCS was created to control manufacturing processes in several industries, including oil refining and petrochemicals production.157

FIG. 3. Yokogawa introduced the CENTUM DCS in 1975. Photo courtesy of Yokogawa.
FIG. 3. Yokogawa introduced the CENTUM DCS in 1975. Photo courtesy of Yokogawa.

Honeywell and Yokogawa both introduced their own DCSs around the same time—Yokogawa created CENTUM (FIG. 3), while Honeywell introduced the TDC2000 platform. According to literature, Yokogawa’s journey to the DCS included applying microprocessors to control systems. These control systems were divided into three basic components: human-machine interface, controllers and control bus. The system was named DCS and was instrumental in controlling various functions of plant operations (e.g., flow).158

In the early- to mid-1970s, Honeywell worked extensively at optimizing automation technologies, as well as focusing on advancing process controls. The company introduced the TDC2000 (TDC stood for total distributed control) system in 1975. This system provided a centralized view of processes within the plant and utilized a data highway that could link various sensor data to a central location.159 Plant personnel could monitor and modify several control loops in a single system. TDC2000 was used globally for a decade until being replaced by TDC3000 in 1985, followed by Experion in the 2000s.

In 1978, Valmet introduced the Damatic Classic automation system, which was installed at Pankaboard’s board mill in Lieksa, Finland. The DCS operated for nearly 40 yr at that location before being replaced by the latest iteration (Valmet DNA) in 1998.160

Other digital companies introduced new technologies during the 1970s and 1980s to optimize process controls and automation for the HPI. In the late 1970s, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) created an Energy Laboratory to facilitate collaboration between university and industry.161 This effort materialized out of the energy crisis of the 1970s. Led by MIT Professor of Chemical Engineering Larry Evans and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) project began in 1977.

According to literature, the ASPEN project set about to develop a general-purpose simulation system that could be used by chemical engineers across the entire process industries. The result of the project was the next-generation process simulator named ASPEN. This technology could simulate large, complex processes involving highly non-ideal chemical components, coals and synthetic fuels, as well as electrolyte and multiphase systems.161

In 1981, the software was commercialized by the new company, AspenTech, which released its first product, Aspen Plus, in 1982.

Several direct digital control technologies were released in the 1970s, which included Foxboro’s (now part of Schneider Electric) FOX 1 system for plant monitoring and process control, Fisher Controls’ (now part of Emerson) DC2 system and PROVOX DCS, Taylor Instrument Co.’s and Baily Controls’ (both companies are now part of ABB) 1010 system and 1055 system, respectively.162,163

Process automation continued to evolve over the next several decades, including the move to ethernet-based networks, fieldbus installations, wireless systems and protocols, increased cyber defenses, remote transmission, and many other advances to optimize plant operations.

Polyethylene terephthalate: Solving the carbonated liquids container challenge

In 1941, DuPont scientists John Whinfield and James Dickson expanded on Wallace Carothers’—a fellow DuPont colleague—work on synthetic fibers. Carothers’ research was instrumental in the discovery of neoprene, nylon and other synthetic fibers. These discoveries were detailed in the February issue’s History of the HPI section of Hydrocarbon Processing.

Through their research, they discovered how to condense terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol into a new polymer that could be drawn into a fiber.164 Their work eventually led to the development of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Whinfield and Dickson patented their discovery in Great Britain in mid-1941 (and later in the U.S. in 1945);165 however, due to wartime secrecy, the invention was not made public until several years later.166 PET would become the basis for many products used in everyday life, and, today, PET is the fourth most produced polymer. One of the primary reasons for its popularity is its stretchability into long hard fibers, which makes it ideal to produce films and containers, among other items, that are lightweight, hard and durable. Using blow molding on PET created a product in the early 1970s that would revolutionize how societies enjoy different beverages: the plastic bottle.

The first plastic bottle was created in the late 1940s by cosmetic chemist Jules Montenier. At the time, Montenier was trying to find a suitable container for his liquid antiperspirant called Stopette—prior to his invention, antiperspirants were applied as a cream or in liquid form by dabbing it on using an applicator or pad.167 He turned to a new chemical polymer discovered approximately a decade before called polyethylene (PE)—a detailed account of the discovery of PE was published in the History of the HPI section in the February issue. In 1947, Montenier partnered with the Plax Corp. of Hartford, Connecticut (U.S.)—the company used blow molding to manufacture plastic Christmas tree ornaments.167 Their partnership produced the Stopette spray bottle, which was first commercially sold in July 1947.167 This event marked the beginning of plastic containers competing against glass.

However, plastic containers remained expensive until the invention of high-density PE (HDPE)168 in the 1950s by J. Paul Hogan and Robert L. Banks while working at Phillips Petroleum Co. in Bartlesville, Oklahoma (U.S.)—the discovery of HDPE is detailed in the History of the HPI section of the April issue. Several new uses of plastic bottles were commercialized over the next two decades, including the plastic milk bottle (patented by Roy Josephsen, Joseph Tino and Charles Fulcher of W. R. Grace & Co.) in 1965.

Like Whinfield and Dickson, Nathanial Wyeth also worked at DuPont. Prior to the late 1960s, he invented several products for the company, including a machine that built dynamite cartridges automatically, which kept workers from inhaling poisonous nitroglycerin powder; and a machine to manufacture Typar, a polypropylene (PP) fabric used in industrial sectors such as construction.169

In 1967, Wyeth began experimenting with the possibility of using plastic bottles to store carbonated beverages. Conventional wisdom at the time was that plastic bottles could not hold the pressure of carbonated beverages and would explode. To test this theory, Wyeth filled a plastic detergent bottle with ginger ale, sealed it and placed it in his refrigerator. According to literature, the next morning, the bottle had swelled so much that it was lodged between the refrigerator shelves.169 This experiment proved to Wyeth that a stronger plastic was needed to withstand the pressure of carbonated liquids.

His initial work was with PP; however, he switched to PET due to its superior elastic properties.169 After several experiments, Wyeth invented a machine that produced a “hollow, biaxially-oriented, thermoplastic.”170 This machine would strengthen the plastic by creating a mold that had nylon thread running in a diamond crisscross pattern. When the mold was pressed, the molecules aligned in a biaxial fashion.169 This created a light, clear and resilient product that could withstand the pressure of carbonated liquids. On May 15, 1973, Wyeth received a U.S. patent for his biaxially-oriented PET bottle machine (FIG. 4).

FIG. 4. A perspective view of Wyeth’s invention as submitted in his patent. Photo courtesy of the U.S. Patent Office.170his patent.  Photo courtesy of the U.S. Patent Office.<sup>170</sup>
FIG. 4. A perspective view of Wyeth’s invention as submitted in his patent. Photo courtesy of the U.S. Patent Office.170his patent. Photo courtesy of the U.S. Patent Office.170

Although PET plastic bottles were more expensive than glass when first introduced into the market, they had many more benefits, such as they were lighter, they were not easily breakable and they could be resealed. Eventually, due to increased manufacturing, the cost for PET plastic bottles decreased significantly.171 Companies like Coca-Cola and Pepsi brought PET plastic bottles to the global masses, and PET plastic bottle usage has soared globally over the past several decades. In 2021, more than 580 B PET plastic bottles were produced (an increase of nearly 100 B/yr since 2016), reaching a total market value of nearly $40 B—industry reports forecast the PET plastic bottle market reaching more than $50 B by 2027.172,173

Infrastructure rises from the Saudi desert: Jubail, Yanbu and the master gas system

In 1975, Saudi Arabia’s government commissioned the construction of two new industrial cities, one on each of its coasts—Jubail in the east and Yanbu in the west. These cities were the results of the country’s growing wealth from oil production and global trade and would serve as major industrial complexes to produce refined fuels and petrochemical products to satisfy domestic demand and for export.

Around the same timeframe, Aramco—the company would not adopt the name Saudi Aramco until the late 1980s—began work on the country’s master gas system.174 The system’s goal was to gather and utilize associated natural gas that was being flared (wasted) from domestic production and use it as a low-cost fuel for industrialization.175 This capital-intensive project included the construction and operation of gas gathering infrastructure, treating and processing facilities, and a transmitting system. By the mid-1980s, the master gas system was able to produce up to 2 Bft3d of natural gas.175 Over the next 40 yr, the company significantly expanded the system’s total capacity, with the ability to produce approximately 12.5 Bft3d of natural gas by the early 2020s.

Jubail Industrial City. Jubail’s origins date back more than 7,000 yr and garnered fame in 1933 as the initial landing spot for Standard Oil of California (now Chevron) geologists in their search for oil in the country.176

In the mid-1970s, Jubail was little more than a fishing village; however, it had several benefits for the country. The city’s location was ideal for shipping, it had ample water supplies to cool industrial plants and it was near crucial domestic oil production fields.177

The scope of the megaproject was to convert Jubail into a large-scale industrial city. The Saudi government selected two agencies to oversee the city’s construction: The General Petroleum and Mineral Organization (PETROMIN) and the Saudi Basic Industries Corp. (SABIC). The project developers selected American-based engineering, construction and project management firm Bechtel to design and build the industrial city. Jubail Industrial City was an effort by the Saudi government to reach self-sufficiency in refined and petrochemical products.

The city, which covers more than 1,000 km2, includes a multitude of industrial infrastructure, including the 440,000-bpd SATORP refinery (a JV between Saudi Aramco and TotalEnergies) and the SADARA petrochemical complex (a JV between Saudi Aramco and the Dow Chemical Co.).

Yanbu. On the country’s west coast, the Saudi government decreed the construction of a second industrial city in Yanbu. The city’s origins date back more than 2,500 yr when it was used as a staging point on the spice and incense route from Yemen to Egypt and various countries around the Mediterranean.178 This sister industrial city to Jubail would be smaller, but due to its proximity on the Red Sea, would be crucial as an import/export port for the country. Over the next several decades, additional hydrocarbon processing facilities would be built, including refineries, petrochemical plants and other supporting infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, storage).

Today, Jubail and Yanbu are the first- and fourth-largest industrial cities, respectively, in the world.179  HP

LITERATURE CITED

135   Machinery Lubrication, “The advent of modern hydroprocessing: The evolution of base oil technology—Part 2,” online: https://www.machinerylubrication.com/Read/493/base-oil-technology

136   Hilbert, T., M. Kalyanaraman, B. Novak, J. Gatt, B. Gooding and S. McCarthy, “Maximizing premium distillate by catalytic dewaxing,” Digital Refining, February 2011.

137   Honeywell UOP, “50 years of CCR Platforming,” online: https://uop.honeywell.com/en/products-and-services/catalysts/refining-catalyst/ccr-platforming

138   U.S. Department of State, “Oil embargo, 1973–1974,” Office of the Historian, online: https://history.state.gov/milestones/1969-1976/oil-embargo#:~:text=The%20onset%20of%20the%20embargo,stability%20of%20whole%20national%20economies

139   Wikipedia, “1973 oil crisis,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_crisis#Consequences

140   Federal Reserve History, “Oil shock of 1978–79,” November 22, 2013, online: https://www.federalreservehistory.org/essays/oil-shock-of-1978-79

141   Wikipedia, “Clean Air Act,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_Air_Act_(United_States)#History

142   USLegal, “Clean Air Act,” online: https://environmentallaw.uslegal.com/federal-laws/clean-air-act/

143   U.S. EPA, “Reviewing NAAQS: Scientific and technical information,” online: https://www.epa.gov/naaqs

144   Smith, A. and H. Davies, “A review of the history of emission legislation, urban and national transport trends and their impact on transport emissions,” Transactions on the Built Environment, vol. 23, 1996, online: https://www.witpress.com/Secure/elibrary/papers/UT96/UT96028FU.pdf

145   Wikipedia, “European emissions standards,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_emission_standards

146  The Council of European Communities, “Council Directive 70/20/EEC,” Office Journal of the European Communities, March 20, 1970, online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:31970L0220&from=EN

147  TransportPolicy.net, “EU: Light duty emissions, online: https://www.transportpolicy.net/standard/eu-light-duty-emissions/

148  European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association, “ACEA proposals for Euro 7 and Euro VII emission standards,” January 28, 2022, online: https://www.acea.auto/publication/acea-proposals-for-euro-7-and-euro-vii-emission-standards/

149  CatalyticConverters.com, “History of the catalytic converter,” online: https://www.catalyticconverters.com/history-2/history/

150  Wikipedia, “Catalytic converter,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalytic_converter#History

151  Houdry, E., “Catalytic structure and composition,” U.S. Patent No. 2,742,437, U.S. Patent Office, April 17, 1956, online: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/US2742437_Houdry_Auto_Catalyst.pdf

152  U.S. EPA, “EPA takes final step in phaseout of leaded gasoline,” January 29, 1996, online: https://archive.epa.gov/epa/aboutepa/epa-takes-final-step-phaseout-leaded-gasoline.html

153   UN Environment Programme, “Era of leaded petrol over, eliminating a major threat to human and planetary health,” August 30, 2021, online: https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/press-release/era-leaded-petrol-over-eliminating-major-threat-human-and-planetary

154   Wikipedia, “John J. Mooney,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_J._Mooney

155   Wikipedia, “Odo Josef Struger,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odo_Josef_Struger

156   Rockwell Automation, “Our history,” online: https://www.rockwellautomation.com/en-us/company/about-us/our-history.html

157   Engineers Community, “History of DCS (distributed control system),” Instrumentation Forum, December 2019, online: https://engineerscommunity.com/t/history-of-dcs-distributed-control-system/9484

158   K. Nobuaki, “CENTUM-History,” Yokogawa, 2012, online: https://www.yokogawa.com/us/library/resources/yokogawa-technical-reports/centum-history/

159   Monti, M. J., et al., “History of the Honeywell Corporation,” February 4, 2011, online: http://www.hon-area.org/history.html

160   Valmet, “Valmet to replace its first-ever Damatic Classic automation system delivered at Pankaboard’s board mill in Finland,” February 8, 2018, online: https://www.valmet.com/media/news/press-releases/2018/valmet-to-replace-its-first-ever-damatic-classic-automation-system-delivered-at-pankaboards-board-mill-in-finland/

161   AspenTech, “A history of innovation,” online: https://www.aspentech.com/en/about-aspentech/35-years-of-innovation

162   Wikipedia, “Distributed control system,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributed_control_system#History

163   Foxboro Company, “FOX 1: A new and advanced computer system for plant monitoring and process control,” 1971, online: https://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/text/Foxboro/Foxboro.Fox1.1971.102646169.pdf

164   How Products are Made, “John Rex Whinfield biography (1901–1966)” online: http://www.madehow.com/inventorbios/71/John-Rex-Whinfield.html

165   U.S. Patent No. 2,465,319, “Polymeric linear terephthalic esters,” U.S. Patent Office, September 24, 1945, online: https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/9a/89/86/60e57afe0ed47e/US2465319.pdf

166   Wikipedia, “John Rex Whinfield,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Rex_Whinfield

167   Cosmetics and Skin, “Stopette,” January 22, 2020, online: https://cosmeticsandskin.com/ded/stopette.php

168   Wikipedia, “Plastic bottle,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_bottle

169   Lemelson-MIT, “Nathaniel Wyeth: The plastic soda bottle,” online: https://lemelson.mit.edu/resources/nathaniel-wyeth

170   Wyeth, N. and R. Roseveare, “Biaxially oriented poly(ethylene terephthalate) bottle,” U.S. Patent 3,733,309, May 15, 1973, online: https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/9d/25/65/39214d822eae1b/US3733309.pdf

171   Garside-Wight, G., “History of the world in 52 packs: 18. PET bottles,” Packaging News, December 22, 2015, online: https://www.packagingnews.co.uk/features/comment/history-of-the-world-in-52-packs-18-pet-bottles-22-12-2015

172   Statista, “Production of PET bottles worldwide, 2004–2021,” online: https://www.statista.com/statistics/723191/production-of-polyethylene-terephthalate-bottles-worldwide/#:~:text=This%20statistic%20depicts%20the%20production,plastic%20bottles%20will%20be%20produced.

173   IMARC, “PET bottle market: Global industry trends, share, size, growth, opportunity and forecast, 2022–2027,” online: https://www.imarcgroup.com/PET-bottle-manufacturing-plant

174   Saudi Aramco, “Our history: Driven by the curiosity to explore,” online: https://www.aramco.com/en/who-we-are/overview/our-history#:~:text=Saudi%20Aramco%20traces%20its%20beginnings,The%20work%20began%20right%20away.

175   Saudi Aramco, “The Master Gas System—Fueling a nation,” online: https://americas.aramco.com/en/magazine/elements/2020/master-gas-system-fueling-a-nation

176   Al-Mulhim, A., “Jubail: Fishing village to an industrial city,” Arab News, March 10, 2014, online: https://www.arabnews.com/news/537596

177   Britannica, “Jubail,” Encyclopedia Britannica, April 16, 2020, online: https://www.britannica.com/place/Jubail

178   Wikipedia, “Yanbu,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yanbu#:~:text=Yanbu%20Al%2DSina’iya%20(,southernmost%20part%20of%20Yanbu%20city.

179   World Atlas, “The world’s largest industrial areas,” June 2019, online: https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/world-s-largest-industrial-areas.html

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