Hydrocarbon Processing Refinery revamp opportunities with welded plate heat exchangers The plate-and-shell (PandS) heat exchanger has three significant advantages over the shell-and-tube (SandT) type traditionally used in refinery processes. An evolving approach to digitalization Much has been written in recent years about the need for refineries to embrace the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Adapting and prospering in the energy transition The energy transition is gathering momentum as pressure from society leads policy makers and investors to demand faster and deeper cuts to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from all industrial sectors. FCC metal trap additives to process more residue Most refiners frequently need metal trapping or bottoms cracking additives for residue operations. Next-generation catalyst improves reliability of LPG mercaptan extraction For decades, sulfur reduction processes have been an integral part of refinery operations. To reduce security vulnerabilities in downstream facilities, try unikernels Unfortunately, but unsurprisingly, oil and gas facilities have joined financial, government, hospitality and other companies as tempting targets for cybercriminals. Can nuclear power plant methodologies help improve hydrocarbon processing reliability?—Part 2 Safety requirements within nuclear power plants (NPPs) have encouraged the development of several rigorous methodologies that, in turn, have stimulated excellence in operability, reliability, availability and maintenance (RAM) to the extent that numerous guides and standards now regulate that industry. Raman spectroscopy for the optimization of hydrogen usage in refineries Approximately 700 refineries are in operation worldwide, producing a range of petroleum products including gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, liquified petroleum gas (LPG) and fuel oils. Digital: Three steps to implement a 21st-century disaster recovery plan In the wake of Hurricane Florence, businesses across the US had another reminder of how unpredictable and unavoidable disasters are when they strike. Feed nozzle effects on yields and operation of FCCUs The first-generation, proprietary feed distributorsa had open-pipe bayonets that were located at the base of the wye section/riser.