Crude oil

Corrosion: Maintaining profitability with opportunity crudes while mitigating naphthenic acid corrosion

Gajdacsi, A., Emerson Automation Solutions

Refiners are asked to produce products within ever tighter margins in a changing industry.

Process Controls, Instrumentation and Automation: Improved methods for trace element analysis of challenging petrochemical samples

Kutscher, D., Thermo Fisher Scientific

There is no doubt that the purpose of refining crude oils into natural raw materials is crucial to produce a vast array of fuels and products used in our daily lives.

Stack gas scrubbing to meet IMO’s 0.5% sulfur bunkering requirement

Ott, P., Weiland, R. H., Optimized Gas Treating, Inc.

The International Maritime Organization implemented the IMO 2020 regulations on January 1, 2020.

Design and scale-up of gaseous Group A fluid bed systems for chemical synthesis

Jazayeri, B., Contributing Editor

More than 100 fluid bed reactors for chemical synthesis and comparable processes using Group A powders have been installed and operated successfully since the late 1940s, with some reactors having an inside diameter at much larger than 7 m (23 ft).

Impact of inaccurate water-in-oil measurement

Yang, M., TÜV SÜD National Engineering Laboratory

Water-in-oil content is an important parameter for both the upstream and downstream sectors of the oil and gas industry.

Improve kerosene mercaptan sweetening with fluoropolymer-cartridge liquid-liquid coalescers

Wines, T. H., Gorin, A., Pall Corp.; Rios, J., Trucko, J., Honeywell UOP

Many refineries are experiencing new problems related to the formation of stable emulsions and poor separation due to the increased use of lower-cost opportunity crude oils that have a high total acid number (TAN), higher gravities and more sulfur content.

Asphaltene removal technology produces novel cement waterproofing additive

Chung, W., Well Resources Inc.; Lee, M.-T., National Chia-Yi University; Chen, C.-Y., Chen, F.-P., Lin, T.-B., Shin Chuang Technology Co. Ltd.

Addressing climate change and environmental issues has become a top priority in the 21st century.

Implementation of advanced level control techniques in refinery operations

Mandal, K. K., Nayara Energy Ltd.

Plant performance depends on stable operations, with steady feed, product flow, temperature and pressure control as per process requirements.

Management of LPG pool in a complex refinery

Saka, A., Kutman, D., Tüpraş

LPG pool management is becoming more important as the regulations on the product specifications tighten.

Oil refinery/petrochemical integration in a CO2-constrained world—Part 2

Petrochemical demand will increase with gross domestic product, while the demand for motor fuels will only show modest growth and may even decline in certain regions, given environmental/legislative pressures and the introduction of battery-powered electric vehicles.