Sulfur

Oil refinery/petrochemical integration in a CO2-constrained world—Part 1

Petrochemical demand will increase with gross domestic product, while motor fuel demand will only show modest growth and may even decline in certain regions, given environmental/legislative pressure and the introduction of battery-powered electric vehicles.

Reverse refining: A novel approach to the refining process

Echenagucia, J. E., Heatoil Solutions LLC

The crude oil refining processing sequence is based on the separation of distillate products from heavier ones and concentrating the heavy molecules of the barrel for processing at the end of the refining run.

Separating from the competition: Recovering profits after the pandemic

Christianson, J., Scalco, V., General Atomics

As recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic begins, so will a return to normal life.

Show Preview: IRPC Process Technology

Nichols, Lee, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

IRPC Process Technology: The latest advancements in process technologies

Editorial Comment

Nichols, Lee, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Over the past several decades, the hydrocarbon processing industry has invested heavily in new processing units to produce low-sulfur and ultra-low-sulfur (ULS) transportation fuels.

Determining the indeterminate

Chaudhuri, D., Fluor Daniel India Pvt. Ltd.; Van de Ruit, H., Fluor

Standards such as API, ASME and NFPA are applied widely in the refining industry.

Design considerations when flaring ethylene oxide

Suares, D. A. G., Gas Processing Consultant

The flaring of gases released from normal process vents and safety valve discharges following an overpressure scenario is widely practiced in refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants.

A solution to the IMO 2020 MARPOL Annex VI requirement

Klussmann, B., Rigby Refining LLC

On January 1, 2020, a new requirement limiting the sulfur content of marine fuel to a maximum of 0.5 wt% went into effect.

Meeting the Tier 3 challenge with ultra-clean alkylate

Griffiths, E., KBR; Mukherjee, M., Exelus, Inc.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced Tier 3 gasoline sulfur standards in 2017, requiring all U.S. gasoline producers to adhere to an annual 10-ppm average sulfur limit.

Reducing acid consumption: Maximizing sulfuric acid alkylation unit profitability

Peterson, J. R., Rana, D., Ewing, R., DuPont Clean Technologies

Alkylation is a process used to produce highly branched isoparaffins from the reaction of lighter olefins and isobutane in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst.