August 2004

Special Report: Fluid Flow and Rotating Equipment

Designing small-bore piping and valve connections

Follow these guidelines to improve reliability

Singh, A., Reliance Engineers Associates Ltd.; Choudhury, M. G., Reliance Engineering Group (REG)

Large petrochemical or refinery complexes have numerous small-bore piping connections. Some are in the various process units; some are in the offsite area and far-flung tank farms. Some will be in connections with utilities systems, whereas others will be in connections with hydrocarbon systems under both hot and ambient temperature conditions. Normally, during the detail engineering of these types of complexes, not much effort is provided for small-bore piping from stress and support points of view. However, failure of small-bore connections containing hydrocarbons can have disastrous consequences. Vibration-related fatigue is one of the main contributors to failure of small-bore conn

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