Featured Articles
Restaging/rerating of centrifugal compressors: Fundamentals, practices and challenges

The primary requirement for rerating or revamping an existing centrifugal compressor is to match the new operating requirements, such as increased or decreased flow, increased or decreased head, or a combination of both. Rerating or revamping is necessary where the existing compressor or compressor train is incapable of meeting the new operating requirement efficiently.

Double-tubesheet heat exchangers: Necessities and challenges
Misal, P. M., Fluor

Among all types of heat exchangers, shell-and-tube heat exchangers are in huge demand for industrial applications.

Stability evaluation of hot spots in the RDS process reactor

During the end-of-run (EOR) period of the authors’ company’s residue hydrodesulfurization (RDS) process in early February 2019, some hot spots occurred in the catalysts of the reactors.

Use infrared thermal imaging for pump system condition monitoring and early failure detection
Brashler, K., Alshahrani, Y., Saudi Aramco

Thermal imaging technology has evolved over the years, and investment costs have decreased significantly.

Business Trends: The economics of reliability—An interim report on the global refining industry
Krimmel, J., Pinnacle

What is reliability? Most people think reliability is simply a measure of failure, or lack of failure. If something runs for a longer period without failing, then it is more reliable than something that runs for less time. However, reliability is a measure of how often something performs when you want it to.

Fired heaters in the process industries: Optimizing operations and minimizing emissions
Finnan, K., Meyer, E., Yokogawa Corp. of America

The process industries, which include chemicals, metals and mining, oil and gas, petrochemicals, pulp and paper, and refining, are very energy intensive

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Global Construction Projects
Total active projects by region and sector, excluding holds

Data provided by Construction Boxscore.

After a tumultuous year, many active capital projects have been deferred, delayed or even abandoned. After excluding projects that have been put on hold, Hydrocarbon Processing’s Construction Boxscore Database is tracking nearly 1,300 projects around the world in the refining, petrochemicals and gas processing/LNG sectors. At approximately 40%, the Asia-Pacific region is the leader in active projects, followed by the Middle East and the U.S. Asia has also been the leader in new project announcements over the past year. Globally, new project announcements have increased for the past four months.

GEI Analysis

New project announcements, December 2019–February 2021

Active project market share by activity level

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Construction Boxscore: Project Spotlight

For additional downstream construction project data, visit Construction Boxscore.

Project: Al-Zour PRIZe project
Location: Al Zour, Kuwait
Operator: KIPIC
Cost: 8000
Capacity: 330,000 tpy
Completion date: 2026
Status: Engineering
Project: Qingzou PDH plant
Location: Qinzhou, China
Operator: Shanghai Huayi
Cost: 1300
Capacity: 750,000 tpy
Completion date: 2022
Status: Engineering
Project: Karbala refinery
Location: Karbala, Iraq
Operator: SCOP
Cost: 6000
Capacity: 140,000 bpd
Completion date: 2022
Status: Under construction
Project: Pulau Muara Besar Integrated complex-Phase 2
Location: Pulau Muara Besar, Brunei
Operator: Brunei Hengyi Industries
Cost: 13650
Capacity: 14 MMtpy
Completion date: 2023
Status: Planning/proposed