July 2005

Bonus Report: Heat Transfer Developments

The fouling limit in crude oil preheat train retrofits

Here are the design considerations for both single exchangers and exchanger networks

Derouin, C., Petitjean, e., Centre de Recherche de Gonfreville; Polley, G. T., ESDU International Ltd.

Availability of semi-empirical, quantitative "threshold" models for the rate of tubeside fouling in crude oil preheat trains allows fouling considerations to be included in both the design of individual exchangers and exchanger networks. Where threshold conditions exist, the amount of heat recovery achievable in a preheat train will be subject to a "fouling limit" above which further heat recovery will be susceptible to significant efficiency losses due to fouling. The fouling limit also serves to identify where mechanical fouling mitigation technologies should be employed. Applying this fouling limit concept to a network retrofit is illustrated with a case study. Mitigating the

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