July 2022

100th Anniversary

History of the HPI: The 1980s: Oil spike/collapse, liquid crystals, conducting polymers and the rise of AR/VR

Several major impactful events took place in the global oil and gas and petrochemical industries in the 1980s.

Nichols, Lee, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Several major impactful events took place in the global oil and gas and petrochemical industries in the 1980s. Nations around the world were hit with another spike in global oil prices, followed by a price collapse. This third crisis in 15 yr led many nations to invest in finding alternative fuels and/or feedstocks to produce transportation fuels and petrochemical products, including the discovery of a new coal gasification technology for chemicals production. The discovery of liquid crystals and conducting polymers not only created new fields of research, but also advanced the creation of a new host of electronic display devices and led to a Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

The 1980s also witnessed a greater focus on mitigating vehicle emissions and the continued phase-out of lead in transportation fuels. For example, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency enacted a new standard in the mid-1980s to severely limit lead content in gasoline. The standard, enacted in 1986, decreased lead content in gasoline from 1.1 g/gal to 0.1 g/gal.180 U.S. refiners also began to increase the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline. MTBE was used as a replacement for tetraethyllead as an anti-knocking agent (i.e., octane enhancer).

Regions such as Asia and the Middle East experienced sizable increases in refining and petrochemicals production capacity during the decade. For example, the Middle East’s refining capacity increased from 3.5 MMbpd in 1980 to more than 5.6 MMbpd in 1990.181 Saudi Arabian petrochemical producer SABIC increased petrochemical production capacity by more than 6 MMtpy to 13 MMtpy by 1990 (this included the launch of several JVs, including KEMYA, YANPET, PETROKEMYA, SADAF and SHARQ)—the creation of SABIC, as well as the construction of Al-Jubail and Yanbu industrial cities and the country’s master gas system, would propel Saudi Arabia to be the leading petrochemical producer in the region (these events were detailed in the History of the HPI section of the June issue). The Asia-Pacific region’s net refining capacity expanded more than 1 MMbpd to more than 13.6 MMbpd from 1980–1990 (Japan’s refining capacity declined more than 1.3 MMbpd in the 1980s).181 The region’s largest refining capacity increase occurred in China, which added nearly 1.2 MMbpd in the 1980s. China was followed by India, which added more than 560,000 bpd; Indonesia doubled domestic refining capacity to nearly 950,000 bpd in the same period.

The decade also witnessed the creation of three novel heavy-oil upgrading technologies, the popularization of new digital technologies that would enhance multiple facets of the oil and gas and petrochemicals industries in the future, and notable industrial accidents and ensuing directives that led to enhanced safety regulations still in use today.

A spike, an oil glut and a collapse

In the 1970s, two major oil crises—the oil embargo of 1973 and the oil crisis of 1979—significantly affected importing nations (both crises were detailed in the History of the HPI section in the June issue). The oil embargo of 1973 led to a quadrupling of oil prices globally and was an impetus for oil importing nations to intently focus on energy security. The embargo also led to the creation of the International Energy Agency in 1974 as a way for major energy consuming nations to discuss energy policies and strategize pathways for the security of supplies.182

The oil crisis of 1979—caused by the Iranian Revolution, which led to a sizable increase in global crude oil prices—had lingering effects into the early 1980s. The year-long revolution was responsible for knocking approximately 4.8 MMbpd of oil production offline. Although this represented only 7% of the world’s oil production at the time, it led to global oil prices nearly doubling to $39/bbl (equates to nearly $140/bbl in today’s currency after adjusting for inflation).140

As oil prices skyrocketed, oil producers swiftly ramped up production and fought for market share. Led by OPEC-producing countries, global crude oil production reached nearly 64 MMbpd in 1979–1980. However, a global economic recession from 1980–1983 led to a steep decline in oil consumption. Many industrialized nations (e.g., Canada, Japan, West Germany, the UK and the U.S.) witnessed high inflation rates and unemployment during this period. With oil production having ramped up over the past few years, the world was awash in oil, leading to a global glut that sent oil prices on a freefall.

During this timeframe, newly-elected U.S. President Ronald Reagan deregulated the U.S. oil and gas industry through executive order by removing price controls on gasoline, propane and U.S.-produced crude oil.183 Although the policy helped reduced high pump prices and put market forces at the helm of crude oil and products pricing, it removed several beneficial incentives for smaller U.S. refiners. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, this led many small, simple refiners to shut operations. From 1980–1990, operable refineries in the U.S. decreased from nearly 320 to just over 200.183 Most of these closures were within 2 yr after the decontrol of the U.S. oil and gas industry. This led the country’s remaining refineries to expand operations and invest in increasing processing complexity.

To mitigate wild fluctuations in crude oil prices, OPEC tried to stabilize the market by implementing production cuts. The OPEC London agreement of 1983 was a notable action taken by the cartel to try and prevent a crude oil price collapse (FIG. 1). The agreement contained two important accords: OPEC lowered the benchmark price of its light crude oil by $5/bbl to $29/bbl and agreed to cut production rates.184 This was a historic occasion, as it was the first time that the cartel had lowered oil prices. By 1985, global oil production had declined from nearly 64 MMbpd in 1980 to less than 57 MMbpd.185

FIG. 1. OPEC’s extraordinary meeting in London in 1983 to try and stabilize the global oil market. The outcome of the meeting became known as the OPEC London agreement of 1983. Photo courtesy of OPEC.

However, many OPEC nations disregarded agreed-upon production cuts and began to increase production rates. In late 1985, tired of trying to stabilize the oil market, Saudi Arabia boosted oil production, flooding the already oversupplied market. By March 1986, the tremendous spike in crude oil supplies led to prices collapsing to $10/bbl—adjusted for inflation, prices collapsed from nearly $140/bbl in early 1980 to nearly $27.50/bbl in 1Q 1986.186,187 Within a 15-yr timespan, the world had experienced three major oil price crises. It would not be for several years afterwards that the global oil market would fall into balance. However, it would not be the last oil price collapse or spike the global oil market would see. Several other significant price swings would occur over the next 30 yr.

A new coal gasification process

Due to the effects of the oil crises in the 1970s (especially the oil embargo of 1973), several nations conducted extensive research on finding alternative energy sources to produce fuels and chemicals besides using crude oil as a feedstock. The stark increase in crude oil prices significantly increased both refiners’ and petrochemical producers’ feedstock costs—most petrochemicals produced at the time used oil-derived feedstocks; the same is true today.

In an effort to wean off using high-priced petroleum feedstocks for fuels and chemical products production, several companies set their sights on coal gasification and coal liquefaction technologies. Since coal was a cheap commodity, converting it into transportation fuels and/or using it as a feedstock for petrochemicals production looked to be a viable alternative vs. using high-priced crude oil. Coal gasification/liquefaction technologies were not new at the time. Technologies such as the Bergius process and Fischer-Tropsch process had been around for decades (these technologies are detailed in the History of the HPI section of the January issue). Countries with abundant supplies of coal reserves could make use of existing coal gasification/liquefaction technologies to not only produce fuels and petrochemicals at a cost-effective rate, but also strengthen domestic energy security.

As global oil prices stabilized, many efforts to switch to other feedstocks fizzled out.188 Conversely, the Eastman Chemical Co. continued research and development on coal-derived chemicals production. Like many chemical companies in the 1970s, Eastman was heavily dependent on crude oil and natural gas to produce petrochemicals. However, the company’s petrochemical facility in northeast Tennessee (U.S.) was in close proximity to vast coal reserves in the Appalachian region of the eastern U.S.189

In the mid-1970s, Eastman conducted extensive research on utilizing coal to produce chemicals, especially acetic anhydride. At the time, the company consumed more than 1 Blb/yr of acetic anhydride to produce various products. Acetic anhydride was first synthesized by French chemist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt in 1852; it is used to produce acetate fibers, plastics, coatings and film.189,190,191 The company began pilot plant operations in 1977, followed by construction and operations on a commercial facility in 1980 and 1983, respectively.

According to literature,189 the facility used several different technologies to produce acetic anhydride from coal. Synthesis gas was produced using the Texaco Coal Gasification Process. The proprietary coal gasification technology would eventually be licensed by ChevronTexaco after the companies merged in 2001. It fell into the hands of GE Energy after the company purchased ChevronTexaco’s gasification business in 2004. Air Products became the current owner of the technology after purchasing the GE gasification business in 2018.192,193

According to literature,189 the coal gasification process used oxygen and coal/water slurry as feedstock for a gasifier, which used high temperature and pressure to produce two gas streams: shifted gas and raw synthesis gas. The two product gas streams left the gasifier and were purified—hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were removed via the Rectisol process (licensed by Linde and Air Liquide). The H2S was converted to elemental sulfur in a Shell Claus offgas treating unit, while the CO2 was recovered and sold to make carbonated beverages.186 The purified raw synthesis gas was cryogenically separated into hydrogen and carbon monoxide, with hydrogen used for methanol production and the carbon monoxide used for acetic anhydride production.189 The final step used an Eastman proprietary reactive distillation process and catalyst system to produce acetic anhydride—purified carbon monoxide reacted with methyl acetate to form acetic anhydride.189 In May 1983, operations began at the Kingsport plant (FIG. 2), which became the first U.S. facility to use a novel coal gasification process to produce a modern generation of industrial chemicals.189

FIG. 2. View of Eastman Chemicals Co.’s Kingsport plant in Tennessee (U.S.), the site of the company’s proprietary coal gasification process. Photo courtesy of the American Chemical Society.

Liquid crystals and conducting polymers

For more than 30 yr, electronic providers have produced items such as cell phones, personal computers/laptops and televisions with ever-increasing ultra-clear displays. These technologies would not be possible without the advancement of liquid crystal polymers technology.

Although first discovered in the late 1800s by Austrian botanist and chemist Friedrich Reinitzer, liquid crystals did not find commercial success until nearly 100 yr later. In the late 1880s, Reinitzer was experimenting with cholesteryl benzoate. While heating the organic chemical, he noticed that it changed from a white solid to a hazy liquid, which then turned clear at higher temperatures. According to literature, Reinitzer observed that the liquid passed through two different color forms before returning to the original white solid form. Reinitzer concluded that the substance passed through two different melting points, which should not exist—German chemist Wilhelm Heintz observed the same phenomenon while conducting similar experiments on fatty acids in the mid-1850s.194

Reinitzer sent his findings to German physicist Otto Lehmann. Upon heating the material, Lehmann viewed the reaction under a microscope. As the solid changed into a milky liquid, Lehmann observed multiple small crystalline formations with irregular borders.194 After additional testing and review, Lehmann believed this phase was a new state of matter, one between a solid and a liquid. He named the substance liquid crystals and published his findings “About floating crystals” in Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (Journal of Physical Chemistry) in 1889. This was the first publication on liquid crystals.195

However, no commercial applications were discovered using liquid crystals. It was not until the late 1940s that extensive research began to be conducted on liquid crystals applications for commercial endeavors. This included works from the following references described in literature:196

  • English researcher George William Gray: His book Molecular Structure and the Properties of Liquid Crystals provided a detailed understanding on designing molecules that exhibit the liquid crystalline state. His work would be instrumental in the future adoption of liquid-crystal displays (LCDs).
  • American chemist Glenn H. Brown: His liquid crystals conference in the mid-1960s gathered the world’s most-prominent scientists on the subject and was a catalyst for worldwide research efforts on the advancement of liquid crystals technologies research.
  • Richard Williams and George Heilmeier: Their work at RCA Laboratories in the U.S. in 1962 were the origins of using a liquid crystal-based flat panel display to replace the cathode ray vacuum tube used in televisions. However, to be used effectively, the compound used in the process (para-azoxyanisole) to create a nematic liquid crystal state required too high of a temperature (> 116°C) to make it a practical application for television displays. In 1966, while working within the Heilmeier group, Scientists Joel Goldmacher and Joseph Castellano were able to create nematic liquid crystals at room temperature by altering the compounds used in the process. This enabled RCA to produce the first practical display device.

In 1972, George Gray and Ken Harrison worked with the Royal Radar Establishment in Malvern, England to produce stable liquid crystals for small LCDs within electronic products.196 Additional research in the 1980s led to an extensive use of liquid crystal polymers in display devices (i.e., LCDs for television, mobile phones, personal computers and laptops) and other products within the automotive, electronics and medical sectors. Today, many companies produce liquid crystal polymers (e.g., Celanese, Polyplastics, Solvay, Sumitomo Chemicals and Toray Industries), and forecasts show the liquid crystals polymers market to reach nearly $2.5 B by 2030.197

Conducting polymers. Prior to the 1970s, it was a common belief that plastics could not conduct electricity. However, research by three scientists changed the fundamental thought on the conductivity of polymers. This research would not only lead to the production of many different products for various industries, but also earned these men the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Conductive polymers are organic polymers that conduct electricity.198 Research and discovery of partly conductive polymers date back to 1862. While working at the College of London Hospital, English chemist Henry Letheby obtained a partly-conductive material by anodic oxidation of aniline in sulfuric acid.199 Additional research in the 1970s found that polythiazyl (polymeric sulfur nitrade) was superconductive at low temperatures, while several other conductive organic compounds were superconductive at high temperatures.199

In the early 1970s, Japanese chemist and engineer Hideki Shirakawa led a group that adapted Ziegler-Natta polymerization to produce well-defined, silvery films of polyacetylene (the work of Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta is detailed in the History of the HPI section of the April issue).199,200 During the same timeframe, American physicist Alan Heeger and New Zealand-born American chemist Alan MacDiarmid were researching the metallic properties of polythiazyl. The two scientists shifted their focus to polyacetylene after MacDiarmid met with Shirakawa in Tokyo.

In 1976, MacDiarmid, Shirakawa and Heeger (FIG. 3) collaborated on additional research focused on the conductivity of polyacetylene. In 1977, additional experiments showed that doping polyacetylene with iodine increased its conductivity by seven orders of magnitude; similar results occurred using chlorine and bromine, as well. The trio published their findings in the article “Synthesis of electrically conducting organic polymers: Halogen derivatives of polyacetylene, (CH)x,”201 followed by two separate deeper dive articles into the technical research and conclusions of their work.

FIG. 3. MacDiarmid, Shirakawa and Heeger were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2000 for their work on conductive polymers. Photo courtesy of the Nobel Foundation archives.

The efforts of MacDiarmid, Shirakawa and Heeger were instrumental in creating a new field of plastic electronics research, which gained prominence in the 1980s and led to numerous products and applications. These included anti-static substances for photographic film, shields for computer screens and smart windows that absorb sunlight, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells, displays in mobile phones and small television screens, batteries, specialty coatings, and many other applications.198,202 For their contributions in the field of conducting polymers, MacDiarmid, Shirakawa and Heeger were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2000.

From tragedy to a safer industry

Notable industrial accidents occurred in the mid-1970s through the 1980s that led to stark changes in the way industry views safety. These included the Bhopal and Seveso disasters and the Phillips 66 Houston Chemical Complex explosion.

In July 1976, a chemical leak at a small chemical plant north of Milan, Italy exposed the surrounding region to high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The leak severely affected humans, wildlife and the environment. It was later determined that the plant had very rudimentary safety systems, it had not considered environmental protection during construction/operation and had no warning system or health-protection protocols for the surrounding communities.203

The Seveso disaster led to the adoption of the Seveso Directive in 1983. The directive (82/501/EC) aims to control major accident hazards involving dangerous substances, especially chemicals, and contributes to the technological disaster risk reduction effort.204 The directive was superseded by Seveso 2 (1996)—also referred to as Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH)—and Seveso 3 (2012). These amendments were the results of other industrial accidents that severely affected surrounding populations and the environment. The major takeaways from the Seveso Directives were the obligations placed on plant operators, which included mandatory safety reports, the establishment of a detailed safety management system and emergency action plans, and the deployment of major accident prevention policy, among others.205 Today, the Seveso Directive applies to more then 12,000 industrial establishments in the EU and is widely considered a benchmark for industrial accident policy for nations around the world.204

Two other major industrial accidents in the 1980s changed the way the industry views process safety management: the Bhopal disaster and the Phillips 66 chemical plant explosion. The Bhopal disaster occurred in the late evening/early morning of December 2–3, 1984 in Bhopal, India. Shortly after midnight on December 3, up to 40 t of toxic methyl isocyanate leaked from the plant’s storage tank and drifted downwind into the surrounding community.206 The highly toxic material claimed the lives of thousands of people and resulted in more than 550,000 injuries.

The Bhopal tragedy led to new safety and environmental measures and government regulations in India. This included the Environmental Protection Act of 1986, which created the Ministry of Environment and Forests—the ministry was responsible for enforcing environmental laws and policies. It also led to the Factories Act of 1987; the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules; and the Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical rules, both enacted in 1989, among other rules and regulations.207 The Bhopal disaster also influenced the Seveso 2 amendment in Europe and raised awareness from governing bodies around the world that enhanced safety management systems were needed in industry.

In the mid- to late-1980s, several governmental safety organizations proceeded with advancing new safety management system regulations. For example, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the U.S developed the process safety management system regulation in the late 1980s. The regulation—still in use today—focuses on the handling, manufacturing, storage and onsite movement of highly hazardous chemicals.208

However, new regulations in process safety management in the U.S. were still a work in progress when an explosion happened at the Phillips 66 high-density polyethylene plant in Houston, Texas (U.S.). The series of explosions—caused by the release of flammable process gases that contacted an ignition source—on October 23, 1989, claimed the lives of nearly two dozen and resulted in hundreds of injuries.209 The tragedy increased the focus on better process safety systems in dangerous work environments, especially in the refining and petrochemical industries. According to literature, several insights prevailed in the aftermath of the accident, including a better adherence to safe work practices and a better overall process safety and risk management program, the creation and adoption of new standards and regulations, the detrimental effects that can occur when safeguards are removed or disabled, and the need for operational discipline in plant operations.210

Unfortunately, the three industrial accidents mentioned here were not the last to occur within the processing industries. However, these major industrial tragedies led to an increased focus on process safety management at both refineries and chemical plants. They have left a lasting impression and have been responsible for new directives, standards and safety guidelines throughout the processing industries in an effort to keep plant personnel and surrounding communities safe.

Heavy oil upgrading

In 1984, the Association for the Valorization of Heavy Oils (ASVAHL) was assembled in France. The ASVAHL Analytical Group was comprised of the Institut Français du Pétrole [French Institute of Petroleum (IFP), which would later take the name IFP Energies nouvelles], Elf Aquitaine (a French petroleum and natural resources group that was acquired by Total Fina in 2000 and is now Total Energies)211 and Total (now Total Energies).

The group’s primary function was to research and develop new heavy-oil upgrading technologies. According to literature, the group’s main objectives included developing straightforward methods for the conversion of heavy products and a better knowledge of the structure of heavy products.212

ASVAHL’s research and findings led to the development of three major heavy-oil processing technologies: Hyvahl, Solvahl and Tervahl. The Hyvahol technology is a fixed-bed residue desulfurization process that enables refiners to produce ultra-low-sulfur fuel oil and low-sulfur diesel—the process is now licensed by Axens (the company was created by IFP in mid-2001 through its merger with Procatalyse Catalysts and Adsorbents).213,214 The Solvahl technology (also licensed by Axens) is a solvent deasphalting process that removes asphaltenes, most metals and other impurities contained in atmospheric or vacuum residues.215 Tervahl is a residue and heavy-oil conversion process by using thermal cracking.216 These heavy-oil processing technologies are still in use today.

The rise of virtual/augmented reality: A precursor to the digital transformation

The 1980s not only witnessed the beginning of the rise in video gaming systems (Atari and Nintendo rose to prominence in the decade)—a market that would reach nearly $200 B in 2021—but also in the popularization of virtual reality (VR).217

One of the earliest VR systems was the Sensorama created by Morton Heilig in the mid-1950s. This “theater” included a stereoscopic color display, fans, odor emitters, a stereo sound system and a motion chair.218 The mechanical device would use sights and sounds to simulate reality for the viewer. Heilig followed up his Sensorama invention with the telesphere mask in 1960 (FIG. 4). This mask was the first iteration of a head-mounted display (HMD) device for VR and is a rudimentary version of the HMDs available in consumer and industrial markets today.

FIG. 4. Drawings of Heilig’s telesphere mask from his patent Stereoscopic-Television Apparatus for Individual Use. Source: U.S. Patent Office, patent no. 2,955,156.

In 1969, Myron Krueger created computer-generated environments that responded to the user. This system eventually progressed, leading to the creation of VIDEOPLACE. According to literature, this virtual world could analyze and process the user’s actions in the real world and translate them into interactions with the system’s virtual objects.219 Krueger eventually termed this type of system “artificial reality.”

Both VR and artificial reality [also known as augmented reality (AR)] research and development increased exponentially over the next several decades. For example, many advances in VR/AR technologies happened in the 1980s. These included the creation of Sayre gloves that used optical sensors to detect finger movements, the creation of VPL Research by Jaron Lanier and Thomas Zimmerman (the company was the first to sell HMDs and gloves to consumers, and Lanier was the first to coin the term “virtual reality”), advanced flight simulators for pilots, and VR to train National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronauts, among many others.220

Today, AR and VR are advancing technologies within the oil and gas and petrochemical sectors, primarily due to the industry’s digital transformation. HPI professionals utilize AR/VR technologies for training, maintenance, planning, safety, engineering and design. The advancements in AR/VR systems are enabling the HPI to digitally enhance operations and safety throughout all sectors of the oil and gas and petrochemicals industries. The adoption of these technologies is forecast to increase the AR/VR market in the oil and gas industry to nearly $1 B by 2027.221 HP


180  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “EPA sets new limits on lead in gasoline,” March 4, 1985, online: https://archive.epa.gov/epa/aboutepa/epa-sets-new-limits-lead-gasoline.html#:~:text=In%201982%2C%20EPA%20changed%20the,between%20unleaded%20and%20leaded%20gasoline

181  bp, Statiscal Review of World Energy, 1965–2020, 2021, online: https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy.html

182  Scott, R., “History of the IEA, Volume 1: Origins and structure,” Paris, France, 1994, online: https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/b73b0800-ed54-48ba-bf16-cc6820b723a3/1ieahistory.pdf

183  Energy Information Administration, “The U.S. petroleum refining industry in the 1980s,” U.S. Department of Energy, Washington D.C., 1990.

184  United Press International, “OPEC’s new oil price agreement has an ‘exceedingly bright’…”, UPI archives, May 2, 1983, online: https://www.upi.com/Archives/1983/05/02/OPECs-new-oil-price-agreement-has-an-exceedingly-bright/5378420696000/

185  IEA, “World oil production by region, 1971–2020,” August 10, 2021, online: https://www.iea.org/data-and-statistics/charts/world-oil-production-by-region-1971-2020

186  MacroTrends.net, “Crude oil prices: 70 yr historical chart,” accessed May 30, 2022, online: https://www.macrotrends.net/1369/crude-oil-price-history-chart

187  Ristanovic, A., “Major oil market crashes in history,” Oil and Energy Online, online: https://oilandenergyonline.com/articles/all/major-oil-market-crashes-history/

188  Gregory, R. W., E. Furimsky and F. M. Mourtis, “Coal gasification,” The Canadian Encyclopedia, July 17, 2014, online: https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/coalgasification#:~:text=and%20carbon%20monoxide.,History,commercialized%20by%20the%20early%201900s

189  American Chemical Society, “Chemicals from coal facility: Eastman Chemical Company, Kingsport, Tennessee,” November 6, 1995.

190  Celanese, “Acetic anhydride,” online: https://www.celanese.com/products/acetic-anhydride/#:~:text=The%20most%20common%20use%20for,acetaminophen%20and%20other%20pharmaceuticals%20manufacturing

191  Wikipedia, “Acetic anhydride,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetic_anhydride#:~:text=Acetic%20anhydride%20was%20first%20synthesized,CH3CO)2O

192  GE Energy, “Plans announced for GE Energy to acquire Chevron Texaco’s gasfication technology business,” May 11, 2004, online: https://www.ge.com/news/press-releases/plans-announced-ge-energy-acquire-chevron-texacos-gasification-technology-business

193  Air Products, “Air Products to acquire GE’s gasification business and technology,” May 11, 2018, online: https://www.airproducts.com/company/news-center/2018/11/1105-air-products-to-acquire-ge-gasification-business-and-technology

194  Bigham, K. J., “LCP introduction to liquid crystal polymers,” Zeus Industrial Products, 2016, online: https://www.zeusinc.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Technical_Paper_Introduction_to_LCP.pdf

195  Engineering and Technology History Wiki, “Milestones: First exploration and proof of liquid crystals, 1889,” December 6, 2021, online: https://ethw.org/Milestones:First_Exploration_and_Proof_of_Liquid_Crystals,_1889

196  Wikipedia, “Liquid crystal,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid_crystal#History

197  Polaris Market Research, “Global liquid crystal polymer market share estimated to reach $2.43 B by 2030,” May 2, 2022, online: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-liquid-crystal-polymer-lcp-market-share-estimated-to-reach-usd-2-43-billion-by-2030-polaris-market-research-301537301.html

198  Wikipedia, “Conductive polymer,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conductive_polymer#Properties_and_applications

199  Norden, B. and E. Krutmeijer, “The Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2000: Conductive polymers,” The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, online: https://www.nobelprize.org/uploads/2018/06/advanced-chemistryprize2000.pdf

200  Wikipedia, “Polyacetylene,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyacetylene#History

201  Shirakawa, H., E. Louis, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang and A. J. Heeger, “Synthesis of electrically conducting organic polymers: Halogen derivatives of polyacetylene, (CH)x,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, 1977.

202  Petrochemicals Europe, “1988: Conducting polymers,” online: https://www.petrochemistry.eu/about-petrochemistry/timeline/

203  Wikipedia, “Seveso disaster,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seveso_disaster#Immediate_effects

204  European Commission, “Major accident hazards: The Seveso Directive—A contribution to technological disaster risk reduction,” online: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/seveso/

205  European Commission, “Major accident hazards: The Seveso Directive—Summary of requirements,” online: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/seveso/legislation.htm

206  Bloch, K. and B. Jung, “The Bhopal disaster,” Hydrocarbon Processing, June 2012.

207  Rajkumar, S., “Safety security and risk management—Aftermath of Bhopal disaster,” International Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 29, 2017.

208  OSHA, “Process Safety Management,” U.S. Department of Labor, Washington D.C., online: https://www.osha.gov/process-safety-management

209  OSHA, “Phillips 66 company chemical complex explosion and fire,” U.S. Department of Labor, Washington D.C., 1990.

210  Bloch, K. and B. K. Vaughen, “Looking back at the Phillips 66 explosion in Pasadena, Texas: 30 yr later,” Hydrocarbon Processing, October 2019.

211  Britannica, “Elf Aquitaine,” Encyclopedia Britannica, March 7, 2016, online: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Elf-Aquitaine

212  Colin, J. M., R. Boulet and J. C. Escalier, “Characterization of heavy-crude oils and petroleum residues—Review of the results obtained by the ASVAHL Analytical Group,” Petroleum Science and Technology, June 1988.

213  Axens, “Residue hydroconversion and hydroprocessing: Fixed-bed hydrotreating,” online: https://www.axens.net/markets/oil-refining/residue-hydroconversion-hydroprocessing

214  Axens, “Technologies, products and services for the refining, petrochemicals and gas industries,” online: http://www.cabestisrl.com.ar/Axens_Corporate.pdf

215  Axens, “Solvent deasphalting: Solvahl,” online: https://www.axens.net/markets/oil-refining/solvent-deasphalting-sda

216  Billon, A. and J. Bousquet, “Residue and heavy-oil conversion by thermal cracking: The Tervahl process,” AOSTRA Technical Symposium, Calgary, Canada, December 1986, online: https://www.osti.gov/etdeweb/biblio/5394022

217  Grand View Research, “Video game market size and share growth report, 2030,” Online: https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/video-game-market#:~:text=The%20global%20video%20game%20market,12.9%25%20from%202022%20to%202030

218  Wikipedia, “Sensorama,” online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensorama

219  Lowood, H. E., “Virtual reality: Entertainment,” Encyclopedia Britannica, May 13, 2021, online: https://www.britannica.com/technology/virtual-reality/Entertainment

220  Virtual Reality Society, “History of Virtual Reality,” 2017, Online: https://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality/history.html#:~:text=Morton%20Heilig’s%20next%20invention%20was,wide%20vision%20with%20stereo%20sound.

221  All the Research, “Global AR/VR in oil and gas market ecosystem,” August 2020, online: https://www.alltheresearch.com/report/373/ar-vr-in-oil-and-gas-market-ecosystem

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