Heat Transfer

Intensification of sulfur processing units by oxygen enrichment and process flowsheet optimization

Yang, W., Hyundai Oilbank Co. Ltd.; Lewis, J., Racz, A., Advisian, a Worley Company

The consistent global trend toward improvements in air quality and tighter regulations on emissions, as well as the International Maritime Organization’s shipping regulations, continue to mitigate sulfur levels—not only in conventional transport fuels (petrol and diesel), but also in jet fuels, fuel oils and other heavier distillates.

Steam generator in a hydrocracker high-pressure loop—why not?

Historically, there has been a perception in the industry that it is not safe to include a steam generator in the high-pressure loop of a hydrocracker.

Flow modeling as a tool for WHRU performance optimization

Gupta, A., Petro-Chem Development Co. Inc.; Gentry, M. R., Airflow Sciences Corp.

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have become a growing concern for many industrialized countries over the past few years.

Use CFD modeling to improve burner design and operation

Chen, Z., Becht

Process heaters are essential pieces of equipment in the refining and petrochemical industry that are used to heat hydrocarbons to a desired temperature.

Refinery tower inspections: Discovering problems and preventing malfunctions

Cardoso, R., Phillips 66; Kister H. Z., Fluor Corp.

A previous survey identified installation mishaps to be one of the top five causes of tower malfunctions.

Water Management: Minimize white rust in galvanized cooling systems

Mowbray, M., U.S. Water Services Inc.

Galvanized coatings for cooling tower systems (cooling towers, evaporator tube bundles, etc.) have been used in the industry since the 1950s due to their relatively low cost and long service life.

Cost-effective naphtha hydrotreating unit revamp to increase high-octane reformate production

Ramesh, K., Phukan, D., Indian Oil Corp. Ltd.

India, which is the third-largest economy in the world, is home to nearly 18% of the world’s population (nearly 1.4 B).

Case study: Extend tube life in a waste heat boiler

Lee, S., Kim, E., SK Energy

The sulfur recovery unit (SRU) separates sulfur from sulfur compounds.

Apply ceramic coatings to extend radiant tube life in process heaters

Bacon, J., IGS-Cetek

Process tubes in refining applications are typically steel alloy (ASTM A335 P22, P5 or P9), which contain 2.25%, 5% and 9% Cr, respectively. These grades oxidize at operating temperatures, and scale will grow continuously on the surface, often reaching 2 mm in thickness in higher-temperature/high-heat-flux units. The layers of scale are very insulating and represent a significant barrier to conductive heat transfer to the process.

Optimal gas analysis decisions improve ethylene plant operation

Kamphus, M., McMillen, D., Emerson Automation Solutions

One of the most common and important building blocks in the petrochemical industry is ethylene, constituting a huge and fast-growing worldwide industry. Ethylene is an intermediate chemical used to manufacture many commercial products—approximately 200 MMt will be produced in 2020.