A number of conversion processes, both hydrogen-addition-based and carbon-rejection-based, crack heavy oil into lighter hydrocarbon products.
Hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide represent major concerns for the hydrocarbon industry. Both species are contaminants and, since their use as feedstock is minor, are considered troubling byproducts.
Unintended fugitive emissions from pressurized plant components have long been a key concern for operators as well as regulators.
In 2013, Refinery “X” was experiencing serious pump distress—the third or fourth in a 12-month period. We received calls about the latest thrust bearing failure event on this important 3,560-rpm process pump. Soon after, a surprisingly similar incident happened at Refinery “Y” in 2015. Both incidents are considered here.
The primary cause for losses and lost opportunities at refineries, chemical complexes, pipeline networks and gas processing facilities is equipment failures.
Most machines and pressure vessels are designed with safety in mind, but they can release large amounts of energy if not constructed, maintained or operated correctly.
This article is the first under the Codes and Standards series. The purpose of this series is to make readers aware of code requirements, the interpretations and the limitations as they stand today, and what engineers can do as an alternative engineering. This series is based on the actual implementation of what is narrated and the satisfactory experiences drawn.
Enhancing regeneration in amine treating systems has proven beneficial in many applications by improving operations and relieving design limitations via reduced steamrates and/or improved treating performance.
This article will examine the impact of Tier 3 regulations on gasoline blending at refineries and terminals, and illustrate options that can contribute to compliance while keeping costs under control.
Corrosion is a major maintenance and reliability concern because it has the potential to impact not only plant operations and costs, but also the environment and worker health and safety.